simple machineLibertyThe graphite is mixed with clay from Mississippi in which ammonium hydroxide is used in the refining process. Then wetting agents are added such as sulfonated tallowanimal ts chemically reacted with sulfuric acid. After passing through numerous machines, the mixture finally appears as endless extrusionsas from a sausage grindercut to , dried, and baked for several hours at , degrees Fahrenheit. To increase their strength and smoothness the leads are then treated with a hot mixture which includes candelilla wax from Mexico, paraffin wax, and hydrogenated natural ts.
The logs are shipped to a mill in San Leandro, California. Can you imagine the iniduals who make flat cars and rails and railroad engines and who construct and install the communication systems incidental thereto? These legions are among my antecedents.
Pick me up and look me over. What do you see? Not much meets the eyetheres some wood, lacquer, the printed labeling, graphite lead, a bit of metal, and an eraser.
The lesson I have to teach is thisLeave all creative energies uninhibited.Merely organize society to act in harmony with this lesson. Let societys legal apparatus remove all obstacles the best it can. Permit these creative knowhows freely to flow. Have ith that free men and women will respond to the Invisible Hand. This ith will be confirmed. I, Pencil, seemingly simple though I am, offer the miracle of my creation as testimony that this is a practical ith, as practical as the sun, the rain, a cedar tree, the good earth.
Just as you cannot trace your mily tree back very r, so is it impossible for me to name and explain all my antecedents. But I would like to suggest enough of them to impress upon you the richness and complexity of my .
* My official name is Mongol . My many ingredients are assembled, bricated, and finished by Eberhard Faber Pencil Company.
Leonard E. Read founded FEE in and served as its president until his death.I, Pencil, his most mous essay, was first published in the December issue ofThe Freeman.Although a few of the manucturing details and place names have changed over the past forty years, the principles are unchanged.
It has been said that only God can make a tree. Why do we agree with this? Isnt it because we realize that we ourselves could not make one? Indeed, can we even describe a tree? We cannot, except in superficial terms. We can say, for instance, that a certain molecular configuration manifests itself as a tree. But what mind is there among men that could even record, let alone direct, the constant changes in molecules that transpire in the life span of a tree? Such a feat is utterly unthinkable!
Simple? Yet,not a single person on the ce of this earth knows how to make me.This sounds ntastic, doesnt it? Especially when it is realized that there are about one and onehalf billion of my kind produced in the U.S.A. each year.
Once in the pencil ctory,, in machinery and building, all capital accumulated by thrifty and saving parents of mineeach slat is given eight grooves by a complex machine, after which another machine lays leads in every other slat, applies glue, and places another slat atopa lead sandwich, so to speak. Seven brothers and I are mechanically carved from this woodclinched sandwich.
My lead itselfit contains no lead at allis complex. The graphite is mined in Ceylon. Consider these miners and those who make their many tools and the makers of the sacks in which the graphite is shipped and those who make the string that ties the sacks and those who put them aboard ships and those who make the ships. Even the lighthouse keepers along the way assisted in my birthand the harbor pilots.
Does anyone wish to challenge my earlier assertion that no single person on the ce of this earth knows how to make me?
Here is an astounding ct Neither the worker in the oil field nor the chemist nor the digger of graphite or clay nor any who mans or makes the ships or trains or trucks nor the one who runs the machine that does the kning on my bit of metal nor the president of the company performs his singular task because he wants me. Each one wants me less, perhaps, than does a child in the first grade. Indeed, there are some among this vast multitude who never saw a pencil nor would they know how to use one. Their motivation is other than me. Perhaps it is something like this Each of these millions sees that he can thus exchange his tiny knowhow for the goods and services he needs or wants. I may or may not be among these items.
You may wonder why I should write a genealogy. Well, to begin with, my story is interesting. And, next, I am a mysterymore so than a tree or a sunset or even a flash of lightning. But, sadly, I am taken for granted by those who use me, as if I were a mere incident and without . This supercilious attitude relegates me to the level of the commonplace. This is a species of the grievous error in which mankind cannot too long persist without peril. For, the wise G. K. Chesterton observed, We are perishing for want of wonder, not for want of wonders.
Dont overlook the ancestors present and distant who have a hand in transporting sixty carloads of slats across the nation.
There is a ct still more astounding the absence of a master mind, of anyone dictating or forcibly directing these countless actions which bring me into being. No trace of such a person can be found. Instead, we find the Invisible Hand at work. This is the mystery to which I earlier referred.
If I, Pencil, were the only item that could offer testimony on what men and women can accomplish when free to try, then those with little ith would have a ir case. However, there is testimony galore; its all about us and on every hand. Mail delivery is exceedingly simple when compared, for instance, to the of an automobile or a calculating machine or a grain combine or a milling machine or to tens of thousands of other things. Delivery? Why, in this area where men have been left free to try, they deliver the human voice around the world in less than one second; they deliver an event visually and in motion to any persons home when it is happening; they deliver passengers from Seattle to Baltimore in less than four hours; they deliver gas from Texas to ones range or furnace in New York at unbelievably low rates and without subsidy; they deliver each four pounds of oil from the Persian Gulf to our Eastern Seaboardhalfway around the worldfor less money than the government charges for delivering a oneounce letter across the street!
I, Pencil, am a complex combination of miracles a tree, zinc, copper, graphite, and so on. But to these miracles which manifest themselves in Nature an even more extraordinary miracle has been added the configuration of creative human energiesmillions of tiny knowhows configurating naturally and spontaneously in response to human necessity and desire andin the absence of any human masterminding!Since only God can make a tree, I insist that only God could make me. Man can no more direct these millions of knowhows to bring me into being than he can put molecules together to create a tree.
My mily tree begins with what in ct is a tree, a cedar of straight grain that grows in Northern California and Oregon. Now contemplate all the saws and trucks and rope and the countless other gear used in harvesting and carting the cedar logs to the railroad siding. Think of all the persons and the numberless skills that went into their brication the mining of ore, the of steel and its refinement into saws, axes, motors; the growing of hemp and bringing it through all the stages to heavy and strong rope; the logging camps with their beds and mess halls, the cookery and the raising of all the foods. Why, untold thousands of persons had a hand in every cup of coffee the loggers drink!
Actually, millions of human beings have had a hand in my creation, no one of whom even knows more than a very few of the others. Now, you may say that I go too r in relating the picker of a coffee berry in r off Brazil and food growers elsewhere to my creation; that this is an extreme position. I shall stand by my claim. There isnt a single person in all these millions, including the president of the pencil company, who contributes more than a tiny, infinitesimal bit of knowhow. From the standpoint of knowhow the only difference between the miner of graphite in Ceylon and the logger in Oregon is in theof knowhow. Neither the miner nor the logger can be dispensed with, any more than can the chemist at the ctory or the worker in the oil fieldparaffin being a byproduct of petroleum.
My bit of metalthe ferruleis brass. Think of all the persons who mine zinc and copper and those who have the skills to make shiny sheet brass from these products of nature. Those black rings on my ferrule are black nickel. What is black nickel and how is it applied? The complete story of why the center of my ferrule has no black nickel on it would take s to explain.
Then theres my crowning glory, inelegantly referred to in the trade as the plug, the part man uses to erase the errors he makes with me. An ingredient called ctice is what does the erasing. It is a rubberlike product made by reacting rapeseed oil from the Dutch East Indies with sulfur chloride. Rubber, contrary to the common notion, is only for binding purposes. Then, too, there are numerous vulcanizing and accelerating agents. The pumice comes from Italy; and the pigment which gives the plug its is cadmium sulfide.
Writing is both my vocation and my avocation; thats all I do.
I, Pencil, simple though I appear to be, merit your wonder and awe, a claim I shall attempt to prove. In ct, if you can understand meno, thats too much to ask of anyoneif you can become aware of the miraculousness which I symbolize, you can help save the freedom mankind is so unhappily losing. I have a profound lesson to teach. And I can teach this lesson better than can an automobile or an airplane or a mechanical dishwasher becausewell, because I am seemingly so simple.
The cuneiform inscription in the Liberty Fund logo is the earliestknown written appearance of the word freedom amagi, or liberty. It is taken from a clay document written about B.C. in the Sumerian citystate of Lagash.
I am a lead pencilthe ordinary wooden pencil miliar to all boys and girls and adults who can read and write.*
Consider the millwork in San Leandro. The cedar logs are cut into small, pencillength slats less than onefourth of an inch in thickness. These are kiln dried and then tinted for the same reason women put rouge on their ces. People prefer that I look pretty, not a pallid white. The slats are waxed and kiln dried again. How many skills went into the of the tint and the kilns, into supplying the heat, the light and power, the belts, motors, and all the other things a mill requires? Sweepers in the mill among my ancestors? Yes, and included are the men who poured the concrete for the dam of a Pacific Gas Electric Company hydroplant which supplies the mills power!
Once government has had a monopoly of a creative activity such, for instance, as the delivery of the mails, most iniduals will believe that the mails could not be efficiently delivered by men acting freely. And here is the reason Each one acknowledges that he himself doesnt know how to do all the things incident to mail delivery. He also recognizes that no other inidual could do it. These assumptions are correct. No inidual possesses enough knowhow to perform a nations mail delivery any more than any inidual possesses enough knowhow to make a pencil. Now, in the absence of ith in free peoplein the unawareness that millions of tiny knowhows would naturally and miraculously form and cooperate to satisfy this necessitythe inidual cannot help but reach the erroneous conclusion that mail can be delivered only by governmental masterminding.
My cedar receives six coats of lacquer. Do you know all the ingredients of lacquer? Who would think that the growers of castor beans and the refiners of castor oil are a part of it? They are. Why, even the processes by which the lacquer is made a beautiful yellow involve the skills of more persons than one can enumerate!
Observe the labeling. Thats a film formed by applying heat to carbon black mixed with resins. How do you make resins and what, pray, is carbon black?
The above is what I meant when writing, If you can become aware of the miraculousness which I symbolize, you can help save the freedom mankind is so unhappily losing. For, if one is aware that these knowhows will naturally, yes, automatically, arrange themselves into creative and productive patterns in response to human necessity and demandthat is, in the absence of governmental or any other coercive mastermindingthen one will possess an absolutely essential ingredient for freedoma ith in free people.Freedom is impossible without this ith.