simple machineWork and Six Simple Machines

The effort is between the resistance and the fulcrum.

The motion of objects is reduced because of friction. Why do you stop swing on a swing? Why does a ball stops rolling?

In most gears, the larger gear is the effort gear turning a much smaller gear, the resistance.

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Friction can be reduced by smoothing and polishing the suce of contact, by lubricating suces with grease or oil, or by usingrollerinstead of sliding.

One function of the screw is to sten things the standard screw or nuts bolts.

D. Increasing the distance or speed of a force

Ais a grooved wheel that turns around an axle fulcrum, and a rope or a chain is used in the groove to lift heavy objects.

Theandpulleyswere use to build stonehenge, England.

The amount of work a machine produces equals the force used multiplied by the distance the machine lifts or moves and object.

When the fulcrum is closer to the effort than to the resistance, there is a reduction in force but a gain in speed and distance.

The lever is essentially a rigid bar that is free to turn about a fixed point called the.

Examples of a wheel and axle door knobs, screwdrivers the whole screwdriver, water ucets, handlebars on a bike, airplane propellers, helicopter blades, n blades, wheels on a car.

Throughout all the early civilizations, including, Lebanon, Peru, Bolivia, and Easter Island, simple machines were used to build magnificent buildings. In Lebanon, temples were built with blocks feet long and feet wide, weighing , tons apiece, a workforce of , men was required to raise one stone. The, and thewere all used early in history.

Two important ctors dealing with force are Mass and Distance, The Earth holds you because its mass is so large compared to yours, but you do not feel the gravity pull of your neighbor sitting next to you!

Imagine you are driving a screw into a board. As you turn the screw, the threads seem to PULL the Screw into the wood. The wood seems to SLIDE up the inclined plane. Actually, the plane slides through the wood.

Simple machines do not decrease the amount of work. In ct, you actually end up doing more work with a machine.

List simple machines that are being used and where

Examples of wedges are axe head, log splitter, chisel, knife, nails, doorstop, plows, screwdriver and scissors

Allows you to lift a weight you normally couldnt lift to a higher level. example loading ramps.

When the fulcrum is closer to the resistance than to the effort, there is a loss in speed and distance, but a gain in force.

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Give me someplace to stand, and I will move the Earth,

A simple machine producesforceand controls the direction of a force.

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There are selfcheck quiz/puzzles that are also password protected and need to be released by your teacher. When these are completed, congratulations, you have completed all the elements of this interactive activity.

When the fulcrum is midway between the effort and the resistance, there is no change in force, speed or distance.

A gear is a wheel with teeth along its circumference.

One Joule Nm, Work done when a force of oneacts through a distance of one meter.

Increase the elevation of heavy objects without having to lift the object directly.

Machines enable people to do work with LESS muscle effort and with greater speed.

Whenever an object is caused to move, whether from a standstill or while already in motion, a force is required.

Simple machineshelp us make better use of our muscle power to dowork

Words to think about that use force pushing, pulling, stretching, squeezing, bending, and lling.

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. Logs were use early in modern building to move huge rocks by rolling them along. These logs became thearound B.C., and were one of the most important inventions in history.

Levers are ided into three classes depending on the position of the effort, resistance, and fulcrum.

The screw is an inclined plane wrapped in aaround a cylinder post.

The science gizmo is a tool that allows you to practice working with the different elements of work, calculating input effort, output effort, mechanical advantage and speed ratio. This site requires a login from your teacher. When you have completed the activities to this point, contact your teacher for thescience gizmo activity.

Examples Push open a door, or shove a book across a desk, or the pull of gravity on a ball when you drop it.

If there were no friction, your life would be much different. You wouldnt be able to walk think about walking on ice or hold things between your fingers. You wouldnt be able to turn the s of a book, or keep your shoes tied, or stop your car with the brakes.

were the forerunner the wheel, several logs placed under a heavy object.

In order for work to take place, amust be exerted through a distance.

The pitch of a screw is the distance between two consecutive threads.

Some s of forces; gravity, electricity, magnetism, and.

Frictionis a force that opposes motion. Friction occurs when two substances rub together. Rub your hands together. What did you feel? Why? Heat is a byproduct of friction.

Gears are a modified or special wheel and axle.

Wedges can be forced between two things to hold them tightly together, like nails holding two pieces of wood together or a doorstop jammed between the door and the floor to create enough friction to hold the door open.

is a universal force. Gravitational force causes every object to attract every other object; a ball lling to the ground; the moon orbiting the Earth. Every object in the universe exerts a force on every other object; that force is gravity.

Answer the following questions and activities in any manner you wish. You may want to use a computer, pen and , or record your own voice. Any method is fine.

Remember you can use this digital book or your book for help.

Watch how one man thinks Stonehenge and other wonders of the world were built using only simple machines and very little else.

Thewas first used around B.C. and is one of the most important invention in history.

Or it could be the sharp rock they used to scrape animal skins, the.

Theresult is usually a loss in force, but a gain in speed and distance.

Airplane propellers, helicopter blades, and n blades are screws that screw through the air.

An inclined plane is a sloping suce used to lift heavy loads with relative little effort. The incline plane does not move.

We dont actually know what the first simple machine was, but it was probably a large stick used to move heavy objects rocks. The.

Still having fun? Try the following activities. You can print them out or complete them in some other way that you prefer.

The fulcrum is usually closer to the resistance, load.

Force is aPUSHor aPULL, that causes a change in the motion or shape of an object.

Work is measured inNm after British scientist James Prescott Joule

Thegains nothing in force, distance or speed, but it changes the direction of the force.

Examples of First Class Levers seesaw, crowbars, scissors, and claw hammers.

Remember you can answer questions any way you like…on , using a computer or creating a blog, video…

Most every machine built requires the use of some form of screw to sten it together.

When you finished with the activity you must click on the worksheet with the right mouse button and select back to return to this book. If you close the with the X on the upper right hand corner, you will need to reopen the book.

When sharpened, the wedge can become a knife or an ax. The tip of a screwdriver slot head is a simple wedge.

Examples of second class levers wheelbarrow, bottle openers, and nutcrackers.

Aacts as a second class lever, the load resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort.

One of the earliest and simplest of machines, a large stick would work as ato move huge rocks.

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Examples of pulleys in use on top of the flag pole, to hoist a sail, to open curtains or miniblinds, to lift hay into a hayloft.

A. Transferring the force from one place to another.

Throughout history, people have learned ways to increase, change the direction of force, and increase the rate of.

What is the energy source for the simple machines used so r?

The wheel and axle is a wheel connected to a rigid pole.

Ais a form of anwhich can increase a force. With a wedge, the material log remains in place while the wedge moves through it.

Examples of gears bike sprockets, can opener.

At one point, tires are rolling up a ramp! Can you think of ways to make that happen? Watch the video closely to answer the following questions.

The wheel and axle is basically a modified, the center of the axle serves as a fulcrum the wheel a lever that rotates around in a circle.

List three reasons why people still choose to use machines.

The industrial revolution was sparked by the invention of the steam engine in Great Britain in the s. The industrial revolution helped bring people into the machine age and vastly increased the availability of many kinds of products.

There are two ctors to keep in mind when deciding whether work is being done

After clicking on the link, use your mouse rightclick button and the back selection to return to this .

Aattached to something that doesnt move such as the ceiling or wall acts as a firstclass lever with the fulcrum located at the axis, instead of a bar the pulley uses a rope.

Examples of third class levers broom, shovel, baseball bat, and tongs.

This ad is mous because it took attempts before everything went perfect. It was all shot in one take. There is no special effect of any kind. Think of all the simple machines being used to create this ad.

The effort and the resistance move in opposite directions. The effort moves down in order to lift the resistance or load.

is exerted on one of the gears, causing the other gear to turn.

When thinking about a screw think about anything that has threads.

The fulcrum fixed pivot point is located between the effort and the resistance forces. Example SEESAW.

If you look closely at the screw, youll see that the threads form a tiny RAMP that runs around the screw from the tip to near the top.

Effort force is applied to a large wheel to turn the smaller axle.

Now complete the Observe and Report activity below

Simple machines help us lift, pull or raise items, change the direction of the force, increase the force, split things, sten things, and cut things.

Theinclined planeand rollers were used in building the great, one of the. . million limestone blocks were moved hundreds of miles over years, weighing to tons each.over one mile long were required to place stones.

An inclined plane provides for lesseffortbut NOT less. The tradeoff is a greater distance to travel.

The resistance is between the effort and the fulcrum.

Suggest three additional energy sources that could be used to do work with simple or complex machines.

Sometimes we want to increase frictional forces When using the brakes on a bike or car, we are increasingfrictionin order to stop.

Using any simple machine takes extra work. Yet, the machine can make the work easier to do. Read the Effects of Friction on of the book to expand on this idea.

A wedge can be one sloping suce like a doorstop. This is called a single incline plane, When a wedge has two sloping suces, it is called a double incline plane. An example of this is the wedge used to split wood for the fireplace.

B. The thread inclined plane wrapped around the cylinder.

Examples of inclined planes simple ramp, escalator, stairs, ladder.

Forces can be equal holding a book up in your palm of your hand, or a book laying on the le Balanced Forces Your hand or the le pushes up and the book pushes down.

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You are doing work when you use a force to cause motion.

A pulley may be fixed, movable, or used in combination.

What do you call the force of gravity on your mass? WEIGHT!

A pulley changes the direction of the force instead of lifting up, you can pull down using your body weigh against the resistance load, that you are lifting.

We all usesimple machines every day, opening a door, turning on the water ucet, going up stairs, or opening a can of paint.

Forceis measured inand is part of the equation for Work. W f x d.simple machineWork and Six Simple Machines

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