machine shop The crypto machines of the NSA museum photos

machine shop The crypto machines of the NSA museum photosThis is Tunny, called that by the British after the fish the Americans called tuna. It is a Schlusselzusatz SZ, which was made by the German company Lorenz and was used by the German Army for highlevel communications, according to the NSA Museum. It provided online encryption and decryption of messages and was capable of handling large volumes of traffic at high speed. The Tunny depended on wheels for its encryption/decryption, but unlike Enigma, it did not substitute letters, but instead encrypted elements of the electrically generated Baudot Code used in normal telegraphic transmissions.

FORT MEADE, Md.When I was planningRoad Trip , which would be on the East Coast, I wanted to arrange a visit to the National Security Agency to talk about the latest technology that it could talk about. Unfortunately, that opportunity never materialized.

It is thought that this device may be the oldest extant true cipher device in the world.

When the clock plugs were substituted for the original ones in the Enigma plugboard, the electrical current was directed through the clock. By simply turning the large knob on the clock, the Enigma operator could select different plugging arrangements without actually rearranging the plugs.

This is the Japanese Navys Red machine, that countrys own version of a cipher machine. Like its diplomatic counterpart, the [Japanese] navy machine separated the alphabet into two subgroups, according to the museum. However, instead of using the Romanized spellings, it has a katakana keyboard. It is believed that due to the difficulty in using and maintaining the machine, the Navy Red saw little use by the Japanese fleet.

Created by Joseph Desch, an employee with the National Cash Register Company, these Bombes worked primarily against the German Navys fourrotor Enigmas. Without the proper settings, the encrypted messages were virtually unbreakable. The Bombes took only minutes to complete a run, testing each of the , possible rotor settings within one wheel order. Different Bombes tried different wheel orders, and one of them would have had the final correct settings. When the various Uboat settings were found for the day, the Bombe could be switched over to work on the German Army and Air Force threerotor messages.

In order to make cracking Enigma even harder, the Germans added a plugboard a stecker for military models. The use of this board prior to encryption allowed the operator manually to change the value of any character. The use of cords was optimum. Combined with Enigmas other features, this added billion variations to the possible cipher value of any character. The preselected changes would be included on the daily key list. The ct that Stecker combinations were manually selected, unlike rotor and internal wiring, made them unpredicle. This ct added measurably both to Enigmas security and the confidence the German armed forces placed in the machine.

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This is Enigma. As the museum puts it, In the years following World War I, both commercial and financial institutions came to rely heavily on radio for rapid worldwide communication. The desire to render their message unintelligible to any but the intended recipient soon gave rise to a small, but lucrative, cipher machine industry.

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These are the operational rotors of Enigma. The German military issued extra rotors with each machinetwo for Army and Air Force machines and four for Navy. Each rotor was wired differently and identified with a Roman numeral. Setting up a communications net involved selecting the rotors for the day and placing them in the machine in the proper lefttoright order.

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A Dutchman, Hugo A. Koch, conceived the idea of the Enigma in . The first commercial model was produced in .

This is an M Bombe checking machine, used by the Allies to counter the message encryption employed by Germans using Enigma machines.

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Though many people look at quilts like this and see only quaint patterns, it appears that quilts made by slaves in the early th century often contained symbols conveying messages of information and advice to others preparing to escape to freedom.

A look at the mous buildings of the National Security Agency, in Fort Meade, Md.

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As a result of radio intercept and timely cryptanalysis, which was aided by poor Comsec on the German radio nets, plans such as those for the decisive air attacks known as the Battle for Britain were revealed to the British well in advance of the intended strike. The losses suffered by the German Air Force during this time were never regained.

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Click hereto read the related story on the National Cryptologic Museum, andclick here to check out the entire Road Trip package.

Being about cryptology, theres no doubt that the star of the museum is the Enigma, the German device used by the Nazis in World War II to encrypt their messages and which the Allies finally broke.

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The museums explanation continues Impressed by Enigmas security, based on careful statistical analysis, the German government moved to acquire all rights to the machine. After Hitlers takeover in , Enigma was no longer commercially available. The use of the machine spread to all branches of the German government. As German military might began to grow, a new version of the machine, which featured an added plugboard or steckler, was adopted for general use by all services.Click hereto read the related story on the National Cryptologic Museum, andclick here to check out the entire Road Trip package.

This is a cipher reel used by the Confederate Army during the Civil War. The principal cryptosystem used by the Confederate government and military was a centuriesold cipher known variously as the court or diplomatic cipher, now referred to as the Vigenere for its th century proponent. In its usual form, an alphabetic square or matrix, comprised of alphabets, each slide over by one letter, is combined with a key usually a phrase to produce polyalphabetic substitution. To assist the eye and cilitate use of the cipher, the Confederates manuctured several different s of devices, such as the reel.

This is a cipher device from the th century, which was found by a West Virginia antiques dealer in a home near Thomas Jeffersons Monticello in Virginia. It was employed to encrypting French language messages. A description for a simplified version of the device to be used for the English language has been found in Jeffersons s and has become known as the Jefferson Cipher Wheel. Although Jefferson may have used it while ambassador to France, a direct connection to [him] of the device exhibited here remains unproven.

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This is the German Air Forces version of Enigma.

Numerous machines and devices were invented to meet the need. The electromechanical, wiredrotor machine known commercially as Enigma was among the best.

This Jade machine was captured by the Allies at Saipan in June .

This is version of the Enigma given to German naval commanders. As with the Army and Air Force, the German Navys dependence on Enigma for security communications proved to be disastrous.

This is the inside of the seal, showing the microphone. The Soviets denied responsibility.

This is a twofoot wooden replica of the great seal of the United States, which Soviet school children gave to U.S. Ambassador Averell Harriman in . Harriman hung it in his office in his official residence. But in , during a routine security check during the ambassadorship of George Kennan, it was discovered that the seal had had a hidden microphone and resonant cavity that was designed to be stimulated by a radio signal from the outside.

Since the Allies did not know the Germans daily rotor selections, several Bombes worked on the same message. Each Bombe tested a different sent of wheel orders. The Bombes usually found two sets ofpossiblerotor settings on each run, but only one solution on one Bombe was the correct wheel order and rotor position used by the Germans for that day. After the Bombe completed a run, a Wave supervisor checked the printed results on this M machine. She checked each result looking for the correct one. Once she found the results, she used the M to fill in any missing plugboard positions. The Bombes could find only a portion of the Stecker positions because the menus were between and letters long, too short to find all the plugboard connections. Having found the correct wheel order, rotor position, and Steckers, the supervisor then sent the results back to the library where Waves and cryptanalysts used an analog machine and decrypted the message. Short messages could be decrypted directly on the M and Waves in the library also used the M to work against messages that had other problems, such as garbles.

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This is the Hebern Electric Code Machine, from . In the two decades prior to World War II, Edward H. Hebern was the first American inventor to make a truly significant contribution to cipher machine development. His machines were the first to embody the wired rotor principle of encipherment. Hebern continued to design and build electromechanical rotor machines until the eve of World War II.

The is the East German TSU teleprinter, which was used from to as part of the Washington, D.C. to Moscow hotline.

An iris scanner in the postCold War section of the NSA Museum.

This is a U.S. Navy cryptanalytic bombe. The U.S. Navys cryptanalytic Bombes had only one purpose determine the rotor settings used on…Enigma.

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This is the Enigma Uhr, or clock. It was a mechanical device the German military used in World War II to boost the security of the Enigma.

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This is the Connection Machine, also known as Frostburg CM, and it was made by the Thinking Machine Corp. of Cambridge, Mass. The NSA used this machine from through , and was the first massively parallel processing supercomputer purchased by the agency.

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This is the first of Heberns rotor machines. It used a single rotor and was made of brass. It worked along with an electric writer and was built in Heberns Oakland, Calif., machine shop.

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The crypto machines of the NSA museum photos

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Though Enigma gets all the glory, the German military worked on other cryptographic writers as well. They offered encryption and decryption, meaning that an operator could in plain and get encoded out. They were built to handle large amounts of at high speeds. An early version of these machines was called Swordfish, and learning that, the Americans and the British began to give fish nicknames to various versions of the machine.

Fortunately, the NSA maintains theNational Cryptologic Museum, a ntastic history of code and codebreaking machines, and so my visit ended up being about historical, rather than contemporary, history.

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This is the machine, known as an analog, that was used to decipher messages sent by the Japanese using their Purple diplomatic cipher machine.

This is a Japanese version of an Enigma rotor cipher machine.

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This is one of just two such devices known to have survived the Civil War and it bears penciled notations of the names of Confederate officers and soldiers.

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This is Miste II, a porle, miniaturized, totally integrated UHF Satcom transceiver which provided secure transmission of data and voice.

According to the museum, This is the largest of three surviving pieces of the mous Japanese diplomatic cipher machine [Purple]. It was recovered from the wreckage of the Japanese embassy in Berlin in .

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Click hereto read the related story on the National Cryptologic Museum, andclick here to check out the entire Road Trip package.

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This is Das Heer, the Army version of Enigma. According to the museum, The threerotor Enigma became the cryptologic workhorse of the German land forces before World War II and continued as such until VE Day. Rugged, completely porle, and requiring no external power source, the machine was ideally suited to the highly mobile lightening of war envisioned and practiced by the German High Command.

This Japanese Type cipher machine was called Jade by American cryptanalysts. It was one of three variations of Japanese cipher machines to use a set of telephone selector switches for toplevel message encryption or decryption. The others were called Coral and Purple by the Americans.

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This the T Enigma, a specially wired commercial version of the machine. The Japanese got of these for joint communications with the Germans.

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